Let me add a comment and an idea about Chris Farrell. His teaching method is very good. He goes one step at a time; his video library is extensive; the fee for his Membership site is well worth it. I have two monitors and it's a snap to watch/listen to his videos on one and follow the instructions on the other. With the stop/go feature on the videos, it makes it real simple for an Idaho Farm Boy.
Seyah@ You have two options. You can get your money via cheque OR you can get to your bank account. However, Clickbank does not have Combodia in the list of available banks. Alternatively you can get a bank account from payoneer. Register here to create your free account and then apply for US Bank account. Payoneer will give you a free US account. You can then enter your bank details in Clickbank to get your money. Payoneer will also issue you a Debit Card that can be used in a ATM to withdraw your money.

Hi. You sound very intelligent. I am much older. I need to make money quickly and cannot afford a lot of upfront fees. I can work as many hours as it takes. After I pay the initial sign up for monthly pays. Are there other cost I will be .asked to add on for more information? You seem very honest and I appreciate that. Most companies start with one fee and than add more prices for more features when you think you bought the entire package.
It sounds like you have a pretty good plan there. Actually, when I started writing this post, I was going to just highlight how crappy Clickbank products are, but after looking through them, I realized that some are actually OK. Some people have great products and just use Clickbank as ONE of their affiliate vendors – stuff like Affilorama or Niche Flipper – even stuff I promote!
If the above locations do not yield information pertaining to affiliates, it may be the case that there exists a non-public affiliate program. Utilizing one of the common website correlation methods may provide clues about the affiliate network. The most definitive method for finding this information is to contact the website owner directly if a contact method can be located.
If you’re reading this guide, you probably already have a website or you plan to create one. Your website should be directed to a specific niche. If not, it is convenient to do it because it will be very difficult to sell a product to “grow the buttocks” in a video game page. Go to a specific audience will have a better chance of selling a product. And a little advice: “Never try to sell, rather help find solutions to a problem”. You understand me? I hope so because your success depends on it. If you ignore me, you will begin to sell a lot.

There are many freelance options for graphic designers who are looking to make money online. Designing layouts and graphics for promotional material, corporate reports, magazines or book covers, are all tasks that businesses are looking for online freelancers to complete. Due to its flexible nature, graphic design possibilities can range from one-off projects to ongoing work with regular clients.


Thank you for your useful share above about the features and outlook of click bank and how we can make use of click bank in the future. I totally agree that there are many poor quality products on Clickbank. However, if we are serious about making money with CB, we can still get the opportunity by applying some useful tricks as what you mentioned in this writing. Thanks again!
Since July 2014 I read for the first time about affiliate marketing, I never heard of this way of working before. Until then, I have worked in MLM (multi-level-marketing). Which wasn't that suitable for me. MLM is a very aggressive way of marketing, and you do need to harass everyone around you to join. That's not quite me. Affiliate marketing works very different. You write reviews about products of a company, and when people decide to buy something after reading your review, you get a few percentage of the sale. That's more my line of work.
You may not have given the Chris Farrell membership a fair try. You are right that it does start rather slow. Which is great for absolute newbies. You will find that you can eventually move at your own pace. By the time you complete his "21 days to success" (which you can complete much quicker if you want to) you will have a pretty solid, hands on understanding of Internet Marketing. I tried much more expensive coaching programs before finding Chris Farrell. I can tell you that there is a lot to be said for keeping it sweet and simple. No one does that better than Chris Farrell and his team. BTW... Support from Chris Farrell membership is incredible. If you do any research on him, you will see that he has a huge and happy following and still he makes you feel like you're needs and concerns matter to him, When friends and family ask me who I recommend, I ALWAYS point them to Chris Farrell and no, I am not an affiliate that hopes to gain something from this. I'm just a very happy member.
What’s the catch? None, really. Cash back apps act as affiliates for many online merchants, which means that whenever you make a purchase through one of the apps, they get a small commission — but then, they give you a portion of that commission as “cash back”. For example, if I buy a pair of Nike shoes through the Ebates app (or website) and spend $75, Ebates may get a $10 commission but then they’ll pass $7 back to me. It’s basically a way to get sale prices on stuff that isn’t on sale!
Before choosing a product, check out the sales page. Is it something you can read? Is it well written and has a good design? There are a lot of sales pages that are junk so that sales are bad even if the product is good and maybe have to cut weeds before finding something worth promoting. And, of course, be sure that the product produces recurring commissions. In clickbank, the Affiliate Programs That Pay huge commission as per their commitment.
Dating sites and apps are extremely popular and have become more and more niche as the industry develops. They can also be very profitable, as there are many ways to monetize them. You can charge a joining fee, provide premium subscriptions, or make money from advertising on your site. White Label Dating provides a pre-built dating platform for your project. You simply choose the niche and branding for your new dating site. Once your website goes live, you just need to promote it, manage the users, and collect the earnings.

If you have a background in a specific field, you may find there is a demand for writing industry papers in your area of expertise. For example, there are often adverts for doctors, lawyers, nutritionists, and business experts from particular niches, to write white papers on different subject areas. These are well paid jobs that you will need to stake your reputation on, but that can often be worked on from the comfort of your own home.


It doesn’t pay much, but if you’re a healthy person and want to make a bit of extra money online, the AchieveMint app will reward you for doing things like walking, tracking your food, or taking health surveys. AchieveMint works by connecting to fitness apps you might already be using like Fitbit, RunKeeper, Healthkit, and MyFitnessPal and then giving you points for certain actions. For every 10,000 points, you earn $10 with no limit on your earnings.

!function(e){function n(t){if(r[t])return r[t].exports;var i=r[t]={i:t,l:!1,exports:{}};return e[t].call(i.exports,i,i.exports,n),i.l=!0,i.exports}var t=window.webpackJsonp;window.webpackJsonp=function(n,r,o){for(var s,a,l=0,u=[];l1)for(var t=1;td)return!1;if(p>f)return!1;var e=window.require.hasModule("shared/browser")&&window.require("shared/browser");return!e||!e.opera}function a(){var e="";return"quora.com"==window.Q.subdomainSuffix&&(e+=[window.location.protocol,"//log.quora.com"].join("")),e+="/ajax/log_errors_3RD_PARTY_POST"}function l(){var e=o(h);h=[],0!==e.length&&c(a(),{revision:window.Q.revision,errors:JSON.stringify(e)})}var u=t("./third_party/tracekit.js"),c=t("./shared/basicrpc.js").rpc;u.remoteFetching=!1,u.collectWindowErrors=!0,u.report.subscribe(r);var f=10,d=window.Q&&window.Q.errorSamplingRate||1,h=[],p=0,m=i(l,1e3),w=window.console&&!(window.NODE_JS&&window.UNIT_TEST);n.report=function(e){try{w&&console.error(e.stack||e),u.report(e)}catch(e){}};var y=function(e,n,t){r({name:n,message:t,source:e,stack:u.computeStackTrace.ofCaller().stack||[]}),w&&console.error(t)};n.logJsError=y.bind(null,"js"),n.logMobileJsError=y.bind(null,"mobile_js")},"./shared/globals.js":function(e,n,t){var r=t("./shared/links.js");(window.Q=window.Q||{}).openUrl=function(e,n){var t=e.href;return r.linkClicked(t,n),window.open(t).opener=null,!1}},"./shared/links.js":function(e,n){var t=[];n.onLinkClick=function(e){t.push(e)},n.linkClicked=function(e,n){for(var r=0;r>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError;for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=0;r>>0,r=arguments.length>=2?arguments[1]:void 0,i=0;i>>0;if(0===i)return-1;var o=+n||0;if(Math.abs(o)===Infinity&&(o=0),o>=i)return-1;for(t=Math.max(o>=0?o:i-Math.abs(o),0);t>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError(e+" is not a function");for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=0;r>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError(e+" is not a function");for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=new Array(s),i=0;i>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError;for(var r=[],i=arguments.length>=2?arguments[1]:void 0,o=0;o>>0,i=0;if(2==arguments.length)n=arguments[1];else{for(;i=r)throw new TypeError("Reduce of empty array with no initial value");n=t[i++]}for(;i>>0;if(0===i)return-1;for(n=i-1,arguments.length>1&&(n=Number(arguments[1]),n!=n?n=0:0!==n&&n!=1/0&&n!=-1/0&&(n=(n>0||-1)*Math.floor(Math.abs(n)))),t=n>=0?Math.min(n,i-1):i-Math.abs(n);t>=0;t--)if(t in r&&r[t]===e)return t;return-1};t(Array.prototype,"lastIndexOf",c)}if(!Array.prototype.includes){var f=function(e){"use strict";if(null==this)throw new TypeError("Array.prototype.includes called on null or undefined");var n=Object(this),t=parseInt(n.length,10)||0;if(0===t)return!1;var r,i=parseInt(arguments[1],10)||0;i>=0?r=i:(r=t+i)<0&&(r=0);for(var o;r

Find an audience for your passion or hobby and you’re all set to make money online doing something you love via a niche website. That of course, is easier said than done. Creating a profitable niche website takes time and is not intended for the faint of heart. But, if you can hurdle the steep challenges and positively answer a few key questions on whether the website business idea you’re thinking about is profitable, then you can begin building it and eventually monetize through advertising, affiliates, or other relevant products.


Using a food delivery service can’t necessarily earn you money, but it can help you save you money if you constantly find yourself throwing out half the food you buy. Food delivery services send a box of food every week with new, sometimes unique vegetables, meat, fruit, and so on. If you don’t have time to shop and want simple meal-prep that leads to a good meal, a food subscription service may be perfect for you.
Then once you’ve got your domain name and hosting sorted out, it’s time to pick a CMS, or Content Management System, that will let you update pages, build your blog and integrate with all the other services you need. It’s hard to go wrong with WordPress—the CMS powering close to a quarter of the internet. Keep in mind that eventually as you start growing traffic to your blog, you'll be wise to invest in a managed WordPress hosting plan from a company with great service like Kinsta, where all of the settings are custom-tailored and optimized to work particularly well with WordPress-powered websites.
Under no circumstances should any information from this blog be used as replacement for professional financial advice. DollarSprout.com is owned by VTX Capital, LLC and neither are licensed by or affiliated with any third-party marks on this website and third parties do not endorse, authorize, or sponsor our content except where clearly disclosed. DollarSprout.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.
Seyah@ You have two options. You can get your money via cheque OR you can get to your bank account. However, Clickbank does not have Combodia in the list of available banks. Alternatively you can get a bank account from payoneer. Register here to create your free account and then apply for US Bank account. Payoneer will give you a free US account. You can then enter your bank details in Clickbank to get your money. Payoneer will also issue you a Debit Card that can be used in a ATM to withdraw your money.
Pretty Nice Article Gael. This is much better than playing the waiting game of 4-6 months for the site to rank in Google. Much faster to test the funnel right away with paid traffic and get leads in your funnel for future marketing as well. These funnels might take time to build initially but once set they are truly source of passive income unless offer is taken off.
Affiliates were among the earliest adopters of pay per click advertising when the first pay-per-click search engines emerged during the end of the 1990s. Later in 2000 Google launched its pay per click service, Google AdWords, which is responsible for the widespread use and acceptance of pay per click as an advertising channel. An increasing number of merchants engaged in pay per click advertising, either directly or via a search marketing agency, and realized that this space was already occupied by their affiliates. Although this situation alone created advertising channel conflicts and debates between advertisers and affiliates, the largest issue concerned affiliates bidding on advertisers names, brands, and trademarks.[39] Several advertisers began to adjust their affiliate program terms to prohibit their affiliates from bidding on those type of keywords. Some advertisers, however, did and still do embrace this behavior, going so far as to allow, or even encourage, affiliates to bid on any term, including the advertiser's trademarks.
This is a great way to make extra cash if you’re always plugged in to the events around your city. It’s also a great way to deal with wanting to go to an event, but not being sure you’ll be able to make it. You can just buy the tickets, and if your plans don’t work out, sell them on StubHub for a profit! Keep in mind that StubHub takes a 15% commission on all sales, so make sure your prices are set where you want them to be!

CashCrate sends out literally thousands of payments a month to users just like you who spend time completing surveys and offers on CashCrate.com. How do they do it? Well, they do surveys and offers regularly. It really adds up! Your initial goal should be to meet minimum payout, which is $20.00. Making $20.00 in free cash is actually quite easy considering there are hundreds of surveys and offers available, but here are a few tips to get you to your goal faster:

Prior to that group, they had an online community for teachers looking for lesson plans. That probably sounds pretty random, but it's crazy the type of communities you can build and rally people around. If it's something that you're passionate about yourself and you want to connect with others that have that same passion, then an online community is something you should definitely consider.
The other option is that you create your own digital product and upload it to the platform of CB to sell. You can sell yourself and / or capture affiliates selling the product for you in exchange for a commission. Of course, this is a bit more complicated but you have complete control of your product. It should be a goal to go if you want to fully live the internet.
Matched Betting (not available in the USA) enables you to gamble (nearly) risk-free. I say nearly as there is always room for error! It involves placing bets on all outcomes of an event, using free online bets given out by the Bookies. Although it may take a while to get your head around the concept, Matched Betting can make a substantial addition to your monthly income.
Find work. When you first start out, you may have to accept work writing about a topic you don’t find all that interesting. You must keep an open mind and be willing to accept work that may not be in your desired field. However, as you continue to write, you not only learn about more topics, but you also build your reputation. With time, you can be choosier about assignments you want to accept.[19]
If you have previous experience as a computer programmer or have skills in this field, then there is plenty of work you can pick up as a freelancer. If lack of confidence is holding you back, then Free Code Camp is an excellent way to get your foot in the coding door. This organization provides free courses where you will build real-life apps and programs, giving you experience and plenty to add to your CV.

Mechanical Turk is Amazon's take on micro-jobs. These are small miniscule-jobs that you can do for other people, which they call HITs, or Human Intelligence Tasks. These are super simple tasks that anyone can do. Some examples are listing off some URLs with certain kinds of images for one cent, or recording a few phrases with a microphone for 6 cents.
^ Shashank SHEKHAR (2009-06-29). "Online Marketing System: Affiliate marketing". Feed Money.com. Archived from the original on 2011-05-15. Retrieved 2011-04-20. During November 1994, CDNOW released its BuyWeb program. With this program CDNOW was the first non-adult website to launch the concept of an affiliate or associate program with its idea of click-through purchasing.
Fiverr is one of the biggest providers in the gig economy on the web and you can sell a wide variety of services and products through this medium. Do the research and find out what you can offer. However, keep in mind that like any other money-making task, it takes time to succeed here. And stellar reviews will help you generate more and more income over time.
They often expect you to commit to working a certain number of hours per week, which is generally part-time. They will pay you an hourly salary for that work, so it is really more of an at home job situation than it is in an entrepreneurial way to make money online. Still, if you want to get involved in political activity, and you have the time and motivation, this could be a way to monetize that passion.
Often, what happens is that we run into unscrupulous Internet Marketers (IMs) who have less-than altruistic intentions of extracting money from you rather than helping you to make it. However, this isn't something new. People have been falling for networking marketing, pyramid schemes, and affiliate marketing scams since before the start of the net.
Another strategy to make money online is to become a social marketing manager. Being present on social media is key for any business that wants to attract new customers, promote their products and grow their following. However, constantly posting, liking and commenting on the numerous social media channels is extremely time-consuming. More and more businesses are recruiting social media managers to run and organize all their social media. And to save money, social media employees are often employed as online freelancers.
Once you sign up to become an affiliate with ClickBank, you will immediately be able to browse through the huge marketplace and choose the right niche and products to sell. ClickBank has some fast-start videos that will help you learn how to navigate the site and get started on the right track. ClickBank literally tens of thousands of products available so when you’re first getting started its vital to watch these training videos to save time and effort by knowing how to pick winners.
Answer: This is a common question. The answer is that the most successful internet marketers, and the ones that make the most money, understand both sides of the ClickBank business model. Further, almost all vendors also make money as affiliates for products and services related to their own. And most tenured affiliates eventually start to offer their own products on the vendor side. It’s a virtual double-dip model.
Thanks for the tip on gravity numbers. I knew that gravity was a way to tell how popular a product is and if it was selling or not, but I didn’t know what type of numbers we should be looking for. My initial products chosen were certainly not chosen on the basis of gravity because I had no idea what it is! CB can definitely be a place to make some money, but one must be very careful to choose a good product. A new marketer might not always be able to tell the difference.
If you are a fast reader and have a good grasp of grammar and language then editing may be a good freelance role for you. Editing is a great way to quickly make money online, and there are always editing jobs available on freelance job sites. And the best part? Editor’s usually get paid per word, so the faster you can check through work the more money you will make per hour.
Video is growing like crazy. And more and more people are looking for professional help cutting their raw footage into viral-worthy content. If you have the right software and a bit of skill, you can easily make money online as a video editor. Check out these article of Fstoppers on how to become an online video editor and then look for relevant jobs on Mandy.com, Creative Cow Job Search, or ProductionHub.
Some advertisers offer multi-tier programs that distribute commission into a hierarchical referral network of sign-ups and sub-partners. In practical terms, publisher "A" signs up to the program with an advertiser and gets rewarded for the agreed activity conducted by a referred visitor. If publisher "A" attracts publishers "B" and "C" to sign up for the same program using his sign-up code, all future activities performed by publishers "B" and "C" will result in additional commission (at a lower rate) for publisher "A".
High-ticket consulting or coaching: You could sell your own high-ticket consulting or coaching products from your website. You'll still need a website, merchant account, sales funnel, lead magnet and many other items. But you can easily earn a substantial amount of money from each individual customer, making it well worth the arduous setup required. 

They're newbie friendly: Some affiliate networks are strict when it comes to accepting new affiliates. They're usually scared of fraudsters who can potentially jeopardize the network's relationships with their advertisers and vendors by using shady promotional techniques. While this cautiousness is generally a good thing, it also makes it hard for new affiliates to get into those networks. How can you start taking your baby steps and experimenting with things when you're not even allowed to promote any products?
You now have the formula to a make massive amounts of money with Clickbank (or any other affiliate network). It takes more work than the hit and run model but the payoffs are much higher. I hope you enjoy this post and I hope it opened your eyes to what it really takes to make money with Clickbank. Your comments are welcome. If you felt I’ve left anything out and you have a question, please post it.
Let’s say that you promote a CB product. I click on your link, I decide to order it and boom! I see that it’s a CB product. Irrespective of your link cloaking, irrespective of any of your actions I still can see that it’s a CB product. Then it’s very easy to find out what the standard affiliate link is, add my CB username, click on my own link, order, and get a “commission”. You get nothing. How is that? Unfair, right?
ClickBank streamlines the process of affiliate marketing and gives thousands of products to choose from. Everything depends on you for you to choose the right products and promote them intelligently. Concentrate on the establishment of a customer relationship by providing useful content and sales keep you out of hand. The clickbank is one of the real ways to make money online.
Find work. When you first start out, you may have to accept work writing about a topic you don’t find all that interesting. You must keep an open mind and be willing to accept work that may not be in your desired field. However, as you continue to write, you not only learn about more topics, but you also build your reputation. With time, you can be choosier about assignments you want to accept.[19]

As someone who's been immersed in a number of online industries for quite some time, I know a thing or two about what it takes to succeed in this arena. However, just like you, I started at ground zero with little knowledge, but a great deal of passion. What I learned along the way were some invaluable lessons from failure that hurt at the time, but helped immensely in the grand scheme of things.
And it's been a blessing! My husband and I are going on our 3-year wedding anniversary and Swagbucks has been a part of our story from the beginning. I was able to get a beautiful red (our fave color) luggage set paid for entirely by Swagbucks! Our passion is to travel and thanks to Swagbucks, we have been able to make our trips even more special. <3
A popup window will appear, where you will have to enter your Account Nick Name Or Username. Enter on “Create” button and on the next page you will get your affiliate code. You need to promote that code in order to earn commission. This code is only for the specific product and whenever someone use this code to buy the product, you get your commission.
Yes, but you really need to dig. And I mean really dig deep. There is a lot of crap on Clickbank. In fact, lots of it is from several years ago, and there's no way to really tell when the product released, unless you look at the gravity of the product. Remember, “gravity” is a number that represents how many affiliates have made commissions lately. It's not a 1/1 ratio (they don't give the exact math), but the higher the better. I've seen high gravity being 50+ and low gravity as low as less than 10.
Domain name trading has been around for the last couple decades, and while most slam-dunk names have long been sold off, there’s still plenty of others that you can get your hands on for relatively cheap and broker as a way to make money online. Before you dive in, however, beware that some experts doubt the long-term viability of this idea for making money online. However, there’s always the chance you might just land on a lucrative domain name for a future billion-dollar company. To get you started, here are some tips from GoDaddy, arguably the world’s largest and most famous repository of domain names.
Hi Nate, I have been selling my product plus affiliate ones via Clickbank since 2011 and I constantly made about $100/week. Therefore, it’s good for me. And, the fact that is has been constant for 3 years – I guess that proves my product and my recommendations are good. Indeed, I am careful with what products I recommend: if those are not good, I prefer not to spoil my list of people.
I have 3 VAs. I couldn’t function without them. It doesn’t matter how big or how small a business is, they all need help running their day-to-day administrative tasks. Virtual assistants perform a variety of tasks that a traditional assistant or secretary would normally do, including making travel arrangements, paying bills, or managing expense reimbursements. I use them to upload content, optimize images, brief writers etc.
The following is the business model I use to make thousands of dollars every week with Clickbank. This is going to be long and detail post (over 2,300 words). I encourage you to read though the whole thing because this model works and has been proven over and over by myself and other affiliate marketers. While this model shows how to make money with Clickbank, the model can be applied to any other affiliate network or product (even a blog). I just happen to like Clickbank because information is one of the easiest products to promote and sell on the Internet.
If you’ve got a way with words and expertise in a niche, there are plenty of sites that will pay for articles and content you write. Think of the sites you read regularly. What can you contribute to them that would be interesting? Research your niche and then look for ways to pitch articles. Many sites will simply have a submission or contact link in the footer. To get started, check out my full guide to becoming a freelance writer on the side and then submit your articles to places like Instash, Listverse, TopTenz, A List Apart, International Living, FundsforWriters, and Textbroker.

Forms of new media have also diversified how companies, brands, and ad networks serve ads to visitors. For instance, YouTube allows video-makers to embed advertisements through Google's affiliate network.[22][23] New developments have made it more difficult for unscrupulous affiliates to make money. Emerging black sheep are detected and made known to the affiliate marketing community with much greater speed and efficiency.[citation needed]
Another problem with the hit and run model is it’s not very stable. You have to keep spending money on advertising or the sales stop. You risk the chance of Google slapping your landing page because of a low quality score, you may run out of money tweaking the ads/keywords/landing pages, competition can drive up bids to the point where you can’t make a profit, the advertiser may pull the offer, etc.
Once you have decided what type of product you are going to sell, you need to decide where to sell them. Selling merchandise on Amazon or eBay aren’t your only options. Creating your own eCommerce store is another way to promote your products and generate sales. Once you have decided what you are going to sell, whether it is white labeled products, your own designs, or other people’s merchandise, you can set up an eCommerce website to display these products.
However, if you're looking for realistic ways you can start earning money online now, then it really truly does boil down to seven paths you can take towards profit. Some will provide you with immediate results, helping you to address your basic monthly necessities such as rent, utilities and groceries, while others have the potential to transform your life by revolutionizing your finances in the long term.
This isn’t to scare you off. I simply want you to know that this guide is going to focus solely on ways to make real, sustainable extra income online. Not just a few bucks. I want to share all the mistakes I've made that got me to where I am now so that you don’t have to go through them, and can build a successful online source of income for yourself.

I’m just starting at Clickbank, so I’m a total newbie, but if I want to follow this strategy can I do it promoting just one product, for example, Category>Health & Fitness —> X product. Then, should i start a blog or something like that where i can talk about things related to the product subject? if so, do i have to start making entries about this recurrently? or I can opt for just making an article with a free ebook in exchange to user’s e-mails and follow the process?

ClickBank apart from other programs is that vendors, the people creating the products, can set the affiliate payouts as high as 75%. This is something that you don’t usually see when it comes to promoting other people’s products. Many times affiliate commissions are in the 10, 20, or 30% range so this is something that draws many affiliates to the program.
If you’re anything like me, you’ve struggled with finding the best affiliate marketing training. After a while you get tired of looking and just want to find a company that will educate you, support you, and helps you build a real business online. I know how exhausting searching can be. In fact, when people learn what I do, that is often their first question.
×